Vaccination: 300 Years of Debate

Additional Resources and Bibliography

Additonal Resources

The following resources can provide further information about the history of vaccines, infectious diseases, and responses. This is not meant to be an exhaustive list.

Malignant Fever: Benjamin Rush and the 1793 Yellow Fever Epidemic in Philadelphia

This online exhibit highlights the effects of epidemic diseases on society by examining one of the most famous outbreaks in U.S. history, the 1793 yellow fever epidemic in Philadelphia. Drawing chiefly on letters written by Dr. Benjamin Rush, an eighteenth-century physician, to his wife Julia Stockton Rush.

Medicine and Madison Avenue

This collection explores the complex relationships between modern medicine and modern advertising, or "Madison Avenue." It presents images and information for approximately 600 health-related advertisements printed in newspapers and magazines. These ads illustrate the variety and evolution of marketing images from the 1910s through the 1950s. The collection represents a wide range of products such as cough and cold remedies, laxatives and indigestion aids, and vitamins and tonics, among others. 

OUCH! : Over a Century of Getting Vaccinated at Duke

Blog post by Brooke Guthrie, Research Services Librarian at the Rubenstein Library covering the history of infectious disease vaccinations of the 20th century at Duke University. Learn how students, faculty, and administration handled vaccines related to measles, polio, and meningitis.

Researching Epidemics in the Rubenstein Library

Want to learn more about epidemics, pandemics, and infectious disease in a local and global context? Check out this helpful LibGuide to begin your research at the Rubenstein Library and learn about the different resources and materials offered on the subject of infectious diseases.

History of Vaccines

A dynamic educational website created by the College of Physicians of Philadelphia targeting a large audience about the history of vaccines. The site does include controversies around vaccines and has been certified by the World Health Organization (WHO) as a reliable, accurate provider of information on vaccine safety topics.

Share Your COVID Story

COVID-19 continues to impact and disrupt our lives. Duke University Archives and the Duke University Medical Center Archives are working to document this unique time in history. Students, staff, faculty, and other people who live, work, or study at Duke are encouraged to share their stories.


Anti-Vaccination Society of America. Vaccination: A Journal of Health, Justice, and Liberty, That Tells the Truth About Vaccination. Terre Haute, Ind. : F.D. Blue, 1903.Hemphill family papers, 1784-1958. Box 38.

Baker's News, or, the Whitehall Journal. No. 14. August 21, 1722. London: Printed and Sold by J. Roberts, 1722.

Blakeslee, Alton L. Polio and the Salk Vaccine: What You Should Know about It. New York : Grosset & Dunlap, 1956. p. 76.

Certificate of proof for smallpox vaccination, 1872 August 20.

Corish, J. L. Health Knowledge : A Thorough and Concise Knowledge of the Prevention, Causes, and Treatments of Disease, Simplified for home use. New York : Domestic Health Society, 1921, c1920.

Duke Medicine News & Communications. Image of Duke Men’s Head Basketball Coach Mike Krzyzewski after his flu vaccine. Advertisement from Badge of Honor flu vaccine campaign. Courtesy of Duke Medicine News & Communications with approval from Duke Athletics.

Flower, B. O. (Benjamin Orange). Evils of a Health Bureau. New York : The National League for Medical Freedom, [1910]. 

Fox, George. A Practical Treatise on Smallpox : Illustrated by Colored Photographs from Life. Philadelphia : Lippincott, 1902.

Inoculation Card from the American Red Cross. The Ann Henshaw Gardiner papers, 1753-1970. Box 28, c.1.

International Certificates of Vaccination. William J. and Leslie Sands Williams Papers, 1930s-1990s. Box 6: Vaccination Certificates 1959-1987

Ladies Home Journal. Philadelphia, Pa.: [Curtis Publishing Co.], June 1910.

Life Magazine. “This is What We Work for at Parke-Davis.” Advertisement from the digital collection Medicine and Madison Avenue. 1958.

Massey, Edmund. A Letter to Mr. Maitland, in Vindication of the Sermon Against Inoculation. London : W. Meadows, 1722.

Mullen, Sharon. “Thousands Receive Shots to Stop Meningitis Threat.” The Duke Chronicle. Duke University Chronicle online archive. vol. 82, no. 114. Durham, NC. March 6, 1987.

Person, Dr. E.L. "Help Keep Measles off Duke Campus." The Duke Chronicle. vol. 80B, no. 114. March 15, 1985.

Peters, Peter J. Warning: Vaccinations are Dangerous! LaPorte, Colorado : Scriptures for America Ministry. 2007?  

Pitcairn, John and Jay Frank Schamberg. Both Sides of the Vaccination Question: The Fallacy of Vaccination / What Vaccination Has Really Done. Philadelphia, Pa. : The Anti-Vaccination League of America, 1911.

The Duke Chronicle. Student Health Will Offer Polio Vaccine.”  The Duke University Chronicle online archive. vol. 52, no. 8. Durham, NC. October 12, 1956.

Vaccination Certificate,Oklahoma State Department of Health (OSDH) William J. and Leslie Sands Williams Papers, 1930s-1990s. Box 6: Vaccination Certificates 1959-1987

Welch, William M., and Jay Frank Schamberg. Acute Contagious Diseases. Philadelphia : Lea Brothers, 1905. p. 63.


Additional Resources and Bibliography

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